Common ART procedures include— • Intrauterine insemination (IUI) in which processed sperm is injected directly into the uterus by-passing the cervix. Insemination may be combined with ovarian stimulation to increase the chance of fertilization of one or more eggs occurring inside the fallopian tubes. • In vitro fertilization (IVF), meaning fertilization outside of the body.
Success rates vary and depend on many factors, including the clinic performing the procedure, the infertility diagnosis, and the age of the woman undergoing the procedure. This last factor—the woman’s age—is especially important. According to the CDC’s 2011 Preliminary ART Success Rates, the average percentage of fresh, nondonor ART cycles that led to pregnancy were—
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes all fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled outside of the body. In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman’s body or donating them to another woman. The main type
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an infertility treatment that is often called artificial insemination. In this procedure, specially prepared sperm are inserted into the woman’s uterus. Sometimes the woman is also treated with medicine that stimulates ovulation before IUI.
Some common medicines used to treat infertility in women include— • Clomiphene citrate (Clomid®*): A medicine that causes ovulation by acting on the pituitary gland. It is often used in women who have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or other problems with ovulation. This medicine is taken by mouth. • Human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG (Repronex®*;
Male infertility may be treated with medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause. Medical and surgical therapies are usually managed by a urologist who specializes in infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may offer intrauterine inseminations (IUIs) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help overcome male factor infertility.
Infertility can be treated with medicine, surgery, intra-uterine insemination, or assisted reproductive technology. Many times these treatments are combined. Doctors recommend specific treatments for infertility based on • The factors contributing to the infertility. • The duration of the infertility. • The age of the female. • The couple’s treatment preference after counseling about success