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    What causes infertility in men?

    Infertility in men can be caused by a variety of factors and the first step in evaluation is typically a semen analysis. A specialist will evaluate the number of sperm (concentration), motility (movement), and morphology (shape). A slightly abnormal semen analysis does not mean that a man is necessarily infertile. Instead, a semen analysis helps determine if and how male factors are contributing to infertility.
    Conditions that can contribute to abnormal semen analyses include—
    • Blockage (obstruction) of the male reproductive tract
    • Hormonal factors affecting the formation and development of sperm
    • Varicocele (an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum)
    • Certain genetic diseases (i.e. cystic fibrosis)
    • Exposure to environmental toxins and excessive heat
    • Lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, drug use, steroids, obesity),
    • Cancer and other medical conditions and treatments

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