What are the steps to perform PGS & PGD?
Step One: After the eggs are fertilized, the embryos are transferred to a special growth fluid and allowed to develop for several days. Normally, by the third day after egg retrieval, healthy embryos will have developed into eight cells.
Step Two: For PGD and PGS, a single cell is taken from a Day 3 embryo, or six to eight cells are taken from a Day 5 or 6 embryo, known as a blastocyst. On a Day 3 embryo, the embryologist uses a special microscope and micromanipulators to remove an intact cell with minimal trauma to the remaining embryo. For a blastocyst biopsy, cells are removed from the outer layer of cells (trophectoderm) using a fine biopsy pipette. The inner cell mass is left undisturbed. The embryo is then frozen to await results of the genetic testing.
Step Three: The chromosomes are examined for genetic abnormalities. In most cases, the genetic testing can be completed within 24 hours of the embryo biopsy, allowing for a timely embryo transfer of the healthy embryos into the woman’s uterus.