What are PGS & PGD?
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) are both IVF procedures designed to examine your embryos for chromosomal abnormalities. An embryo biopsy is performed on day 5 or 6 to examine all 24 chromosomes- the 22 non-sex chromosomes plus the two sex chromosomes (X&Y) in time for your embryo transfer. If you are concerned about gender-based hereditary diseases or are looking for “family balancing” options, PGS and PGD can also identify the gender of the embryo. The differences between the two procedures are as follows:
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) – A screening process that ensures there are normal chromosome numbers and detects potential genetic disorders.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) – A cell is removed from an embryo to test for specific genetic conditions (i.e. cystic fibrosis) before transferring the embryo into the uterus.
Screening for healthy embryos will increase your pregnancy success rate. Both procedures are 99.9% accurate.
PGS and PGD Testing
Step 1: Embryo Development
After the egg has been fertilized, embryos are transferred into a fluid that allows them to develop for several days. On day three, the healthy embryos should have developed into eight cells.
Step 2: Partial Removal
When the embryos are ready for PGS and PGD testing, six to eight cells are extracted from the embryo (usually after day 5 or 6). This is called a blastocyst biopsy. During the biopsy, our laboratory technician uses a narrow biopsy pipette to remove cells from the outer layer of cells (trophectoderm). The embryologist will then freeze the embryo and wait for the test results.
Step 3: Genetic Testing
Genetic testing is usually completed within one day of the embryo biopsy, which allows for a timely embryo transfer. During this step, chromosomes are inspected for genetic abnormalities.
Who should consider PGS or PGD Testing?
- Female patients 38 or older
- Patients who have experienced 3 or more failed IVF attempts (can be of any age)
- Those who want to screen for inherited genetics disorders or diseases
- Patients wishing to screen for sex-linked diseases such as hemophilia
- Carriers of chromosomal translocations
- Women who have experienced recurrent miscarriages
- Patients in need of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing
- Intended parents who wish to choose their child’s gender
RSMC has some of the most experienced lab technicians in San Diego
Our highly experienced embryologists and lab specialists have over 30 years combined experience. They have tackled some of the toughest fertility cases and have conducted numerous PGS and PGD procedures. Our location in San Diego has a state-of-the-art lab onsite as well as a full-time laboratory director. This allows us to be efficient and time everything perfectly. We can perform a biopsy on each patient’s embryo when it’s safest to do so, based on the embryo’s quality and stage of development. Having an experienced team gives you the best chance for a successful pregnancy.