What are PGS & PGD?
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) are both IVF procedures designed to examine your embryos for chromosomal abnormalities. An embryo biopsy is taken from day 5 or 6 to examine all 24 chromosomes—the 22 non-sex chromosomes plus the two sex chromosomes (X & Y) in time for your embryo transfer. PGS and PGD will also identify the gender of the embryo if you are concerned with gender-based hereditary diseases or looking for “family balancing” options. The differences between the two procedures is as follows:
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) – is a screening process that detects for numerous potential genetic disorders as well as for normal chromosome numbers.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) – involves removing a cell from an IVF embryo to test it for a specific genetic conditions (cystic fibrosis, for example) before transferring the embryo to the uterus.
Screening for healthy embryos, will increase the pregnancy success rate. The accuracy of these procedures are 99.9%.
The Process of PGS and PGD Testing
Step 1: Embryo Development
Following the fertilization of the eggs, embryos are transferred into a fluid that allows developments for several days. By Day 3, the healthy embryos should have developed into eight cells.
Step 2: Partial Removal
In order to conduct PGS and PGD testing, six to eight cells are extracted from a Day 5 or Day 6 embryo called a blastocyst. During a blastocyst biopsy, our laboratory technician uses a narrow biopsy pipette to remove cells from the outer layer of cells (trophectoderm). The embryologist will then freeze the embryo and wait for results of the tests.
Step 3: Genetic Testing
The chromosomes are inspected for genetic abnormalities. The genetic testing is typically completed within day of the embryo biopsy, which allows for a timely embryo transfer of the healthy embryos into the woman’s uterus.
Who should consider PGS or PGD Testing?
- Female patients 38 or older
- Patients who have experienced 3 or more failed IVF attempts (can be of any age)
- Those who want to screen for inherited genetics disorders or diseases
- Patients wishing to screen for sex-linked diseases such as hemophilia
- Carriers of chromosomal translocations
- Women who have experienced recurrent miscarriages
- Patients in need of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing
- Intended parents who wish to choose their child’s gender
RSMC offers some of the most experienced PGS & PGD doctors in San Diego
Our highly-experienced embryologist and lab specialists have over 30 years combined experience with a variety of situations, including some of the most challenging fertility cases and numerous PGS and PGD testing. The San Diego RSMC location consists of a state-of-the-art lab on-site as well as a full-time laboratory director. This allows us maximum flexibility in the timing of the delicate procedure. We can biopsy each patient’s embryos when it is safest to do so, based on the embryos’ quality and stage of development, and have expedited results. Every situation is unique and there are so many factors that can affect fertility. Having an experienced team gives you the best chance for a successful pregnancy and of growing your family.