What are the steps to perform PGS & PGD?
Step One: After the eggs are fertilized, the embryos are transferred to a special growth fluid and allowed to develop for several days. Normally, by the third day after egg retrieval, healthy embryos will have developed into eight cells.
Step Two: For PGD and PGS, a single cell is taken from a Day 3 embryo, or six to eight cells are taken from a Day 5 or 6 embryo, known as a blastocyst. On a Day 3 embryo, the embryologist uses a special microscope and micromanipulators to remove an intact cell with minimal trauma to the remaining embryo. For a blastocyst biopsy, cells are removed from the outer layer of cells (trophectoderm) using a fine biopsy pipette. The inner cell mass is left undisturbed. The embryo is then frozen to await results of the genetic testing.
Step Three: The chromosomes are examined for genetic abnormalities. In most cases, the genetic testing can be completed within 24 hours of the embryo biopsy, allowing for a timely embryo transfer of the healthy embryos into the woman’s uterus.
What are PGS & PGD?
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) are both IVF procedures designed to examine your embryos for chromosomal abnormalities. An embryo biopsy is taken either at day 3 or day 5 to examine all 24 chromosomes—the 22 non-sex chromosomes plus the two sex chromosomes (X & Y) in time for your embryo transfer. PGSe and PGD will also identify the gender of the embryo if you are concerned with gender-based hereditary diseases or looking for “family balancing” options. There is a difference, however in the two procedures:
- Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) – is the proper term for testing for overall chromosomal normalcy in embryos. PGS is not looking for a specific disease diagnosis – it is screening the embryo for normal chromosome numbers.
- Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) – involves removing a cell from an IVF embryo to test it for a specific genetic condition (cystic fibrosis, for example) before transferring the embryo to the uterus.
Screening for healthy embryos, will increase the pregnancy success rate. The accuracy of these procedure is 99.9%.
Who should consider PGS or PGD Treatment?
- Patients that are having IVF with advanced female age – 38 or older
- Patients of any age with repeated IVF failure – usually defined as 3 or more failed attempts
- Patients wishing to screen for inherited genetic diseases
- Patients wishing to screen for sex-linked diseases such as hemophilia
- Patients that are carriers of chromosomal translocations
- Patients that have had recurrent miscarriages
- Patients in need of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing
- Intended parents who wish to choose their child’s gender
RSMC offers some of the most experienced PGS & PGD doctors in
Our highly-experienced embryologists and lab specialist have over 30 years combined experience with a variety of situations, including some of the most challenging fertility cases. During that time, they has successfully performed numerous PGS and PGD treatments. The San Diego RSMC location consists of a state-of-the-art lab on-site, as well as, a full-time laboratory director. This allows us maximum flexibility in the timing of the delicate procedure. We can biopsy each patient’s embryos when it is safest to do so, based on the embryos’ quality and stage of development, and have expedited results. Every situation is unique and there are so many factors that can affect fertility. Having an experienced team gives you the best chance for a successful pregnancy and of growing your family.